ECTS grade Percentage of successful students normally achieving the grade Definition
A 22% EXCELLENT - outstanding performance with only minor errors
B 18% VERY GOOD - above the average standard but with some errors  
C 23% GOOD - generally sound work with a number of notable errors  
D 17% SATISFACTORY - fair but with significant shortcomings  
E 20% SUFFICIENT - performance meets the minimum criteria  
FAIL - considerable further work is required  
PASS  - some courses are not finalized by exam but ongoing activities are required (e,g, test, coursework, in-class presentation). The course is passed if the activities are sufficiently accomplished
PASS (in doctoral study programmes only)