So far unexplained radiation
Scientists from the Institute of Physics in Opava have been evaluating the oscillations of X-rays around black holes over the past few years, which among other things has helped to determine the mass of one of the supermassive holes located in the centres of galaxies. A detailed analysis of this radiation shows that for the most massive objects observed, the observed frequencies of oscillations of this radiation differ significantly from what scientists predict based on models that correspond very well to the same type of oscillations of radiation in observed "small" black holes formed by the collapse of massive stars.
Professor Stuchlik's research group has recently been intensively studying the effect of the hidden matter around supermassive black holes on the so-called oscillations of accretion structures in their vicinity, which affect the nature of the X-rays coming from these structures. "When we observe radiation from hot matter called accretion disks orbiting black holes, we observe two amplified frequencies of radiation. This is emitted from near the so-called event horizon. Interestingly, the two frequencies have an integer ratio, most often 3:2," says Dr Vrba from the Institute of Physics in Opava, co-author of one of the scientific papers. One of the consequences of this research was also the consideration of the existence of wormholes and parallel universes. This new scientific path opens the door to better mapping the distribution of the mysterious dark matter.
The unknown dark matter
Although astronomers have been studying the Universe for centuries, more than 95% of the composition of the Universe is still unknown. It is thought that 68% is hidden energy and the remaining 27% of the unknown composition is hidden matter (usually referred to as "dark matter"). It is known that this component does exist in the Universe, due to a number of otherwise unexplained phenomena, for example from inconsistent observations of galaxy rotation rates. This was pointed out as early as 1932 by the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort (1900-1992) and in 1933 by the Swiss-American astronomer with Czech roots, Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974). Unlike hidden energy, hidden matter is not uniformly distributed in space.
Thanks to its gravity, dark matter forms clusters like visible matter, which is also attracted to these structures. Some more recent research suggests that the presence of dark matter could affect the so-called polarisation of microwave radiation present in the Universe. This phenomenon is thought to be caused by hypothetical particles called axions. But otherwise, no one has any idea what the nature or form of these particles is. There are only speculations, which are difficult to confirm or deny without better observational technology. While the CREDO project (which anyone with a smartphone can join) is trying to decipher the answers about the composition of hidden matter, new research by physicists in Opava is providing information about the more detailed distribution of this matter.